Varicella-Zoster Diagnosis (anti-VZV IgM, IgG)

Reporting Name


Useful For

Anti-VZV IgM, IgG is useful for the serological diagnosis of acute-phase Varicella-Zoster virus infection.

 

Indications for Testing

  • Monitoring of illness associated with VZV
  • Aid in the differential diagnosis of facial paresis
  • Direct Fluorescent Antibody assay (DFA) is a more rapid method (see VZV DFA) for vesicular lesions.
  • Virus culture is the method of choice to confirm severe or atypical disease and VZV encephalitis, congenital varicella syndrome,  and disseminated VZV in immunocompromised host
  • Viral culture is the preferred method for confirming VZV infection from body fluid (including CSF and vitreous fluid)

 

Group Test Information

Varicella-Zoster Diagnosis Available separately Always performed
Anti-VZV IgM NO YES
Anti-VZV IgG YES YES

 

Method Name

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

 

Reporting Name

VZV IgM

VZV IgG

 

Aliases

Chickenpox

Herpes Zoster

Varicella-Zoster
Virus

VZV

Zoster

Specimen Required

Serology: Suitable specimens are individual samples (human sera or EDTA/heparinized/citrated plasma) obtained by standard laboratory techniques.

 

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.6ml

 

Transport Temperature

Specimen Room temperature Refrigerated Frozen
Serum NO YES* YES**

*The samples should be stored for not more than 3 days at 2-8°C.

**For longer delay, freeze at -70°C and transport on dry ice.

 

Reject Due To

Specimens other than Serum
Anticoagulants OK
Hemolysis OK
Lipemia OK
Icteric OK

Useful For

Anti-VZV IgM, IgG is useful for the serological diagnosis of acute-phase Varicella-Zoster virus infection.

 

Clinical Information

VZV causes primary varicella (chickenpox) and reactivation herpes zoster (shingles). During acute infection, highly infectious VZV is produced in skin vesicles, accounting in large part for the high degree of contagion of varicella and zoster. VZV produces a generalized vesicular rash on the dermis (chickenpox) in normal children, usually before 10 years of age. After primary infection with VZV, the virus persists in latent form and may emerge (usually in adults 50 years of age and older) clinically to cause a unilateral vesicular eruption, generally in a dermatomal distribution (shingles).

 

Varicella presents with fever, headache, and a rash that is maculopapular for a few hours, vesicular for 3-4 days and leaves a granular scab. The vesicles collapse when punctured. These lesions mostly occur in successive crops, with various stages of maturity all at the same time. The lesions may be present on the scalp, axilla, mucous membrane of the mouth upper respiratory tract and the conjunctivae. They may be abundant or mild and not profuse enough to note that an infection is present. Complications are seen more frequently if the infections occur in adolescence, adulthood or immunocompromised host, with higher rates of encephalitis, pneumonia and death. Babies who develop varicella within the first 28 days are at higher risk from
developing severe generalized varicella.

 

Complications from infection include secondary bacterial skin infections, otitis media, bacteraemia, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock like syndrome, mild hepatitis and thrombocytopenia. Infections that occur early in pregnancy may result in congenital varicella syndrome in 0.7% of cases. After 13-20 weeks gestation the incidence is 2%.

 

Herpes Zoster or shingles is a reactivation of latent varicella infection in the dorsal root ganglia in a localized area. The lesions are restricted to an area supplied by the sensory nerves along nerve pathways and are usually unilateral causing severe pain.

 

Rare or atypical manifestations include encephalitis, meningitis, lymphadenitis, myelitis, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract as well as hepatitis.

 

In Newfoundland and Labrador, among a cohort of 586 children, 565 (96.4%) did not have detectable VZV antibody at one year of age. The proportion with VZV antibody increased thereafter to 12.8% and 33.9%, respectively, at age two and four years, indicating the extent of exposure to VZV at these ages. Among 1135 school-age children, the proportion testing positive for VZV antibody increased from 44% at five years of age to 88.9% at 15 years of age, indicating the cumulative incidence of varicella in this age group. Among pregnant women, 92.1% tested positive for VZV antibody, and the corresponding figure for health care providers was 93.1%. In both groups, the proportion testing positive for VZV antibody increased with advancing age, from 89.6% for the 15- to 19-year age group to 96.5% for those over the age of 40 years. The risk of VZV infection increases steadily from one year of age, reaching a peak during school years. This data support the recent Canadian recommendation to vaccinate any person older than 12 months of age who is susceptible to VZV. Among the adult population, the proportion susceptible will be under 10% for the foreseeable future, and for those at risk, selective vaccination based on their immune status would be a cost effective approach.

 

Reference Values

Non-reactive

 

Interpretation

Anti-VZV IgM Anti-VZV IgG Interpretation
NONREACTIVE NONREACTIVE No previous exposure/immunity to VZV. To detect early acute infection virus culture is recommended.
NONREACTIVE REACTIVE Previous remote natural infection/ successful vaccination.
REACTIVE NONREACTIVE Recent VZV infection or cross reactive antibodies. To confirm infection virus culture is recommended.
REACTIVE REACTIVE Recent chickenpox or reactivation shingles. To confirm active virus infection virus culture is recommended.

 

Clinical Reference

Gershon, A. A., Chen, J., LaRussa, P., and Steinberg, S. P. 2007. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p. 1537-1548. In Murray, P. R., Baron, E. J., Jorgensen, J. H., Landry, M. L., and Pfaller, M. A. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

 

Ratnam, S. 2000. Varicella susceptibility in a Canadian population. Can J Infect Dis. 11(5):249-253.

 

Siemens. 2008. Enzygnost® Anti-VZV/IgM: package insert. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH.

 

Whitley, R. J. 2010. Varicella-Zoster Virus, p. 1963-1969. In Mandell, D., Bennett, J. E., and Dolin, R. 2010. Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.

 

Status Days Analytic Time Maximum
Laboratory Time
Specimen
Retention
Routine Monday, Thursday 24h 72h 1 month

 

Method Description

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

 

Performing Laboratory Location

Newfoundland & Labrador Public Health Laboratory

St. John’s

 

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